What is Philosophy for Children (P4C)?
The World of P4C
Adapted from Matthew Lipman: Natasha,
Vygotskian Dialogues (New York, NY: Teachers College Press, 1996).
Writing of first book in Philosophy for Children curriculum: Harry
Stottlemeier’s Discovery (Harry) — for ages 11-12 – with the support of the
National Endowment for the Humanities (NEH).
Offset printing of approximately 350 copies of Harry and conducting of
experiment at the Rand School (Montclair Public Schools), both with the help of
a grant from the NEH.
Organization and holding of conference in “Pre-College Philosophy” at
Montclair State College (now University).
Establishment of IAPC as part of Montclair State College.
Establishment of IAPC as part of Montclair State College. Writing (together
with Ann Margaret Sharp and Frederick S. Oscanyan) of first edition of
Philosophical Inquiry, the instructional manual to accompany Harry.
Conducting of teacher-education project in Newark, at Miller Street and Morton
Street Schools, with support from the NEH.
Conference in Philosophy for Children held at Rutgers University Continuing
Education Center, New Brunswick, with support from the New Jersey Committee for
Award of five-year development grant from New Jersey Department of Education
(Title IV-C) to develop test of children’s reasoning.
Holding of five- to seven day workshop/conferences to train professors of
philosophy to prepare teachers to foster children’s critical and creative
thinking Sites: Rutgers (New Brunswick), Fordham, Yale, and Harvard. Aided by
NEH, Fordham, Rockefeller, and Schultz Foundation Grants.
Publication by IAPC of first edition of Philosophical Inquiry, with support from
Publication by IAPC of first edition of Lisa, an ethics reader for children ages
Publication by IAPC of first edition of Ethical Inquiry, instructional
manual to accompany Lisa.
Publication by IAPC of first edition of Philosophy in the Classroom.
Holding of five- to seven-day workshop/conferences for professors of philosophy
Sites: Michigan State University, University of Illinois at Champaign-Urbana,
and Albion College.
Beginning of in-service teacher education programs in New Jersey and a few other
Publication by Temple University Press of Growing Up with Philosophy.
Publication by IAPC of Suki, for children ages 14-15.
Publication by IAPC of Mark, for secondary school students.
Development of Thinking About Thinking, a five part filmstrip aimed at assisting
the teaching with the logic portion of Harry.
Completion of experiment sponsored by New Jersey Department of Education and
carried out under auspices of Educational Testing Service. Sites: Newark and
Pompton Lakes, New Jersey.
Award by Rockefeller Foundation of three-year Research Scholar Grant.
Beginning of utilization of Pocono Environmental Education Center in Dingman’s
Falls, Pennsylvania, for the purpose of training future teacher educators, as
well as for summer teacher-education workshops.
Publication of Vol. 1, No. 1 of Thinking: The Journal of Philosophy for
Publication by IAPC of Mark, for children ages 16-17.
Publication by IAPC of Social Inquiry, manual to accompany Mark.
Publication by Temple University Press of second edition of Philosophy in the
Publication by IAPC of Writing: How and Why, manual to accompany Suki.
Publication by Harvard University Press of Philosophy and the Young Child by
Gareth B. Matthews.
Completion of Educational Testing Service (ETS) one-year experiment – a
study of 4,500 New Jersey students in 10 demographically diverse communities,
under direction of ETS Senior Research Psychologist, Dr. Virginia Shipman.
Holding of International Conference for Teacher Educators in Philosophy for
Publication by IAPC of Pixie for children ages 9-10.
Award of three-year research grant by Schumann Foundation.
Publication by IAPC of Kio and Gus, for children ages 9-10. Publication by IAPC
of Looking for Meaning, instructional manual to accompany Pixie.
Publication by Arden Press of Ronald Reed’s Talking with Children.
Completion of New Jersey Test of Reasoning.
Publication by IAPC of revised edition of philosophical inquiry.
Publication by IAPC of New Jersey Test of Reasoning.
Formation at MSC of International council for Elementary and Secondary School
Philosophy as well as the Center for Cognitive Growth in Early Childhood, both
of which were short-lived predecessors of the International Council for
Philosophical Inquiry with Children (ICPIC).
Publication by Harvard University Press of America of Philosophical Adventures
with Children by Michael Pritchard.
Founding of ICPIC following one of the first workshops for the training of
trainers held outside the United States. This one was held in Denmark.
(Subsequent ICPIC conferences have been held in Spain, Austria, Brazil, Mexico
Discontinuation of use of Pocono Environmental Education Center for training of
trainers and beginning of utilization instead of St. Marguerite’s Retreat House
in Mendham, New Jersey, for one 10-day and two two-week sessions each year.
Beginning of Master’s Program in Teaching Philosophy to Children at MSC.
Philosophy for Children designated a
"meritorious educational program" by the National Diffusion Network of the U.S.
Department of Education and given annually renewable dissemination support.
Publication by IAPC of Wondering at the World, instructional manual to accompany
Kio and Gus.
Publication by IAPC of Elfie, for children ages 6-8.
Publication by Temple University Press of Philosophy goes to School.
Publication by IAPC of Getting Our Thoughts Together, instructional manual to
Establishment at Montclair State College of Institute for Critical Thinking (ICT).
Beginnings of support by ICT of IAPC through the funding of fellowships for
Visiting Scholars and assistantship for master’s students.
BBC produces Socrates for Six Year Olds, a one hour film on Philosophy for
Children, and shows it in Britain, the United States, Japan, Israel, and other
countries around the world.
Publication by Cambridge University Press of Thinking in Education.
Publication by Kendall/Hunt of Children in Chaos by Leonard Harris.
Publication by Temple University Press of Studies in Philosophy for
Children: Harry Stottlemeier’s Discovery.
Publication by Kendall/Hunt of Thinking Children and Education.
Publication of Thinking Stories, Vol. 1, ed. By Phil Cam (Australia)
Publication of Thinking Stories, Vol. 2, ed. By Phil Cam (Australia).
Reissue (in paperback) by Kendall/Hunt of Growing Up With Philosophy.
Publication by Harvard University Press of The Philosophy of Childhood by Gareth
Montclair State College becomes Montclair State University (MSU). Philosophy
for Children revalidated by National Diffusion Network. Doctoral programs in
Philosophy for Children begin to make their appearance.
Ed.D. in Pedagogy, Specialization in Philosophy for Children begun at
Montclair State University.
Matthew Lipman retires from Montclair State University as Professor
Emeritus; Professor Maughn Gregory becomes IAPC Director.
Federation of Australasian Philosophy in Schools Associations (FAPSA)